Handout for Communication:

Communication can be defined as the process of passing of information or messege from one party to another. For example if A want to pass a message called XYZ to part B, Part B must receive XYZ for communication to have taken place effectively.

In my work-practice I communicate with service users through verbal means, through images, objects of reference and signs. I also communicate with my colleagues through handovers, daily observation notes, communication book, notice board, staff meetings, diary and other organisational documents.

Active support is a term used in the health and care sector to mean giving the opportunity to the service user to do as much as possible for themselves. It is important to take this approach because it promotes independence because the service users will able help themselves to a certain extend. This also promotes the well being and feel good factor is the service user is able to still help themselves. Lastly, this approach complies with care standards underpinning health and social care

The main document where a service user??™s needs can be found is the ???care plan???. A care plan is the legal document which states a cross section of information about an individual service user. It is good practice to first of all read or refer to the individual care plan before starting t work with them so that you know how best to support them .It is also important to know that in the event of an investigation, complaint about the delivery of care, the care plan is the basis of reference documents.


Details of barrier and/orDiscriminatory practice | How this stands in the way ofEffective communication | What you can do to address |
Language difference | People cannot understand each other and it may be difficult to find someone who understand the language. | You can use interpreters, family and friends, language centres and sometimes community centres. |
Disability | Some forms of disabilities can inhibit service users to communicate their wishes and preferences. | Other forms of can be used to promote effective communication. These may include using images, communication cards, makhaton, objects of referenceetc. |
Noise | Noise can hinder communication if people cannot hear each other properly | It is good practice to make sure there is no noise in the environment. In some circumstances it may be a good option to take the service user to a private quiet area in order to communicate with the individuals appropriately. |
Jargon | The use of jargon can be a hinderance to effective communication because not everyone understands the meaning of big and technical words. | It is good practice to use simple everyday words so that all parties understand. |
Mis-management of time | If time is not managed properly communication can be affected. For example if time has run out people tend to rush in what they say, what they are prepared to listen to and what they can put down in writing. | It is good practice to manage time properly so as to promote effective communication. For example allow enough time to write in the handover/daily notes so that enough information is recorded. |
Nature of communication and the environment | The nature of communication and the environment can hinder effective communication for example if the issues to be discussed are sensitive, people would not like to discuss these in some environments and yet are happy to communicate in other environments. | It is good practice to consider the nature of communication first before engaging into a conversation. If the information to be communicated are sensitive make sure this is carried out in a private environment. |
Personal Hygiene | Personal hygiene can hinder effective communication because people would not feel comfortable to engage in a conversation. For example if someone have bad breath other people may be reluctant to talk to them and /or they may also feel uncomfortable to talk to other people freely. | It is good practice to make sure service users are supported with their personal care needs. |
Cutting other people shot while they are still talking. | This can hinder communication as the other person may get frustrated and then stop talking or reduce their contribution to the conversation. | It is part of good communication skills to allow other people to say what they want to say without interrupting them. |
Closed questions | Using of closed questions where is it inappropriate hinders effective communication. | It is only good practice to use closed questions where ???yes??? or ???no??? answer is the most appropriate. |

One example is about elderly people. As people become elderly and frail they may develop slurred speech, they take time to take in any information and also take time to communicate what they want to say.

To support Zubeda I would seek assistance from family and friends who understand her language, language centre, look at referall notes from the form care setting or social worker, or relevant community centres.

I would look at the care plan to find out about the reviewed communication needs. Given Minnie??™s situation, I would make images, use writing, use objects of reference, and use signs to re-enforce the communication.

One example is when other people use inappropriate words such as discriminatory words, words which are racist, and other unacceptable language. If I come across such situations in my work practice I would use my organisation??™s policy and procedure to deal with it. I would also seek assistance from the manager r team leader.

Data Protection Act 1998 | This Act Protects personal information such as names, addresses, telephone numbers , medical records, financial records etc. |
Freedom of Information Act 2000 | This Act gives right to access information held by public authorities and it is often accessed for a fee eg. CRB checks, credit checks etc. |
Access to Personal Files Act 1987 | This Act give right to individuals to access their personal finals to see information written and kept about them. It also gives individuals right to challenge information about them which they think is unfair, incorrect or inadequate |
Medical Records Act | This Act gives right to individuals to access medical information about them. |

A closed question is one that requires a ???Yes??? or ???No??? answer and an open question is one that requires someone to openly say more about the subject of the matter.

Closed Questions advantages | Closed questions disadvantages |
They save time if used in an appropriate situation | The may hinder further communication if there was more to be said |
Open Questions Advantages | Open Questions Disadvantages |
They encourage people to say more and therefore promotes effective communication | They may not be suitable where a yes or no answer is sufficient They take more time. |

Formal communication is where someone is communication in a certain capacity as on behalf of an organisation and informal communication is when someone communicate as an individual and the communication is not to be used in any capacity for example communicating with friends.

14. What is the difference between formal and informal communication KS4

Formal communication is where someone is communication in a certain capacity as on behalf of an organisation and informal communication is when someone communicate as an individual and the communication is not to be used in any capacity for example communicating with friends.

Formally | Informally |
Writing in daily notes, contributing in meetings and reviews | Chatting with colleagues during our tea break for example about private matters. |


Name of Organisation | How they work in the field of social care |
Care Standards | They set the standards for good and best practice. |
Care Quality Commission | They inspect to see if the standards are being followed. They can impose sanctions which may be from recommendations or even closure of settings. |
Social Services | They identify individuals of the community who need care services and advocate for funding for the service. |

Equality is treating people fairly fostering a situation where people are given the same opportunity in any given situation. Inequality refers to the opposite behaviour of equality.

Examples of actions which may amount to inequality are:-
-Preferring to support service users who can walk to those who are wheelchair users.
-Offering a menu which does not address choices and preferences for some.
Examples of people may be subject of actions which amount to inequality are:-
Men | Women |
young | old |
Able bodied | disabled |
black | white |
rich | poor |


Confidentiality is a term commonly used as a policy to protect individuals personal information. This policy does not allow workers to disclose any information relating to other people.

Aspects of individuals??™ lives which are considered confidential are Medical records, Financial records and other personal information such as names, addresses.

If confidential information gets into wrong hands people may be harmed, exposed to danger and/or abused. The organisation can be sued for breach of trust and the worker involved may lose their job and put on a registered of people who cannot not work with vulnerable people.

Circumstances where confidentiality may be broken are those when withholding such information will result with the individual concerned or other people in danger harm or abused. Examples include is the information is required for legal reasons.

If the information requested falls under the ???need to know??? basis, the organisation??™s policy and procedure applies. This may be referring the issue to senior management.

Reflect signals is a form of body language which is beyond our control. People around us can interpret this body language and may result in how relationships between individuals and colleagues are formed for example ???trust???.

Power can be abused when communicating on difficult, sensitive and complex issues putting words into other people??™s mouths, making threats and or amending what has been said to suit you

When recording information it is important to remember to write in the correct or appropriate documentation, write clearly so that other people can read, make sure the message is communicated properly, make sure you date and sign the record.


29. The difference between fact, opinion and judgement is:-

Fact | A fact is something that cannot be disputed |
Opinion | An opinion is someone??™s view on a given subject. |
Judgement | A judgement is conclusion made basing on for example DNA evidence, witnesses etc |

30. Acceptable ways of communicating the same messag may be:-
Hurry up, I don??™t have all day | I am running out of time, is it alright with you if we do this much faster |
What are doing that for | What you are doing is not acceptable, I suggest you stop doing that. |
I don??™t know what you are talking about. | I am failing to understand what you are talking about. Could you please explain more |
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