Instructor: Miki Mori
Student: Aotian zheng
The female wrestler in the Bolivia have presented the important progressive role that counterculture have played in the society reformation. By choosing wrestler as a career and use its special position in the Bolivia culture, the woman in Bolivia found the way to breach the old society rule that based on the male chauvinism. When they declared their victory on the platform, they are not only declaring themselves as an outstanding athlete, but also declaring the victory against the traditional male chauvinism for the woman who suffered the unfair social discrimination and restrictions. In the modern society, the counterculture has become an effective method for the vulnerable group and the new generation of the society to fight against the conservative and discriminative society rules.
The word ???counterculture??? is created in the late 1960s, which refer to the behavior, value and the social movement deviates from the mainstream of the conservative society that originally formed in early 20 centuries. This word is usually used to describe many civil social movements that held after the WWII, from the anti-war movement like May 1968 protest in Paris that against the and hippies to the civil right movement like ???the second wave???. Most of the counterculture movements not only held by the victims of the social injustice, like the female citizens or minorities, but also involved by the young intellectuals who seek for society reformation. The counterculture movement always focusing on the civil right and the equality of the society and against the traditional value and culture standard like the nationalism, imperialism and patriarchies rule. Different from revolutionist of the 19 centuries, the counterculture suggest a new kind of resistance to the social injustice, not by using the social violence to start a revolution and rebuild the society, but rely on the culture movement to change the social environment in order to achieve the final reformation of the society. There are multiple causes for how the counterculture becomes such a progressive and influential factor in the transform and development of the modern society. But there are three decisive reasons: high society participation related to social discontent and clear purpose directed by the progressive thought.
On the one hand, The high society participation is one of the most important characters of the counterculture movement. in the most of situations, the social discontents are the main reason that caused the counterculture movement. Just like the traditional male- dominated society of the Bolivia made the woman of this country seeking for the method to be socially and finically independent, the common discontent of the certain social class or group within the society could quickly and widely spread the influences of the movement. the individual who silenced about the social injustice that they are suffering maybe more easy to be inspired by the movement that trying to find a new solution for the social problem and become the major source of the supporter of the counterculture movement. At the same time, compared to the common political movement,the counterculture movement may not need to bear so much social and political risk. And in the most of situations, the nongovernmental and non-politic culture movement could also avoid the politic interferences. Both of these characters make the counterculture movement more easily to attract the common individuals to participate. As a cultural creation that hard to be constricted and friendly to the outsiders,The counterculture movement It would not only make the vulnerable social group, like the minority in 1960s America, the female citizen and the homosexual people who live in a religious conservative country, realize they could speak their voice and change their life by this movement, But also rise the social attention within or out of the country about the ugly fact that existed within its original society. It will provide the attender more advantages to fight against the powerful conservative mainstream force and made their progressive achievement from the inside of the society.
On the other hand, Talking about the counterculture movement, people may always thinking about the massive chaos in the Woodstock. Some people believe that the counterculture is a total spontaneously and unregulated movement that driven by the unpredictable public will. But the fact that most of the counterculture movement does not have a formal and unified leadership system did not mean it is equal to the blind ochlocracy. On the contrary, the history have proved that the multi-centered and anti-centralization character of the counterculture movement made it more easily to adapt the changing social situation and keep its nature as a progressive culture movement that can hardly interfered by the political forces. But here is the question: how could the counterculture movement be unified and achieve its purpose with such a separated structure. The answer is every parts of this movement are sharing one clear purpose or ideal and that is the main factor bond them together. For example, the hippies movement in 1960s mostly consisted by the college students and young intellectuals from different universities, it is can not be unified not only because its organization are totally separated, but also because a unified leading system are totally against the value of the hippies movement. But at the same time, the purpose and the topic of this movement is never change, just like it described, ???rejected established institutions. Calling them ???The Establishment???, ???Big Brother???, and ???The Man???, hippies believed the dominant mainstream culture was corrupt and inherently flawed and sought to replace it with a? Utopian? society???(mortal journey) are always the major similarity of the hippies movement around the America. This clear purpose made it keep its fighting and progressive spirit against the conservative society and become one of the most important culture movement that change the American history.
The limited use of the social violence is the major difference between the postwar social movement and the social revolution from mid of 19 centuries to 1930s. Different from the old social movement in order to against the old society rule, the counterculture movement does not focusing on start the direct conflict and social disagreement between the different social classes. After facing the bloody revolution war through the whole 19 centuries and the destruction caused by two world wars, Inspired by the Satayagraha movement of India, the counterculture movement start to use soft power to fight against the old society that rely on the social hard power. The counterculture movement gives up the public violence that may cause the social anxious. Instead, they choice of starting with change society culture environment not only made their goal and method more friendly and understandable, but also give them more social advantage to win social support.
In conclusion, the countercultures movements are representing are new kind of progressive social movement in the postwar society.
The 1960s hippies counterculture movement, Mortal journey (http://www.mortaljourney.com/2011/03/1960-trends/hippie-counter-culture-movement)